What is/are Amino Acid Sequence used for? The Order Of Amino Acids As They Occur In A Polypeptide Chain. This Is Referred To As The Primary Structure Of Proteins. It Is Of Fundamental Importance In Determining Protein Conformation.
What is/are Antibodies, Monoclonal used for? Antibodies Produced By A Single Clone Of Cells.
What is/are Antigens, Viral used for? Substances Elaborated By Viruses That Have Antigenic Activity.
What is/are Antiviral Agents used for? Agents Used In The Prophylaxis Or Therapy Of Virus Diseases. Some Of The Ways They May Act Include Preventing Viral Replication By Inhibiting Viral Dna Polymerase; Binding To Specific Cell-Surface Receptors And Inhibiting Viral Penetration Or Uncoating; Inhibiting Viral Protein Synthesis; Or Blocking Late Stages Of Virus Assembly.
What is/are Apoptosis used for? One Of The Mechanisms By Which Cell Death Occurs (Compare With Necrosis And Autophagocytosis). Apoptosis Is The Mechanism Responsible For The Physiological Deletion Of Cells And Appears To Be Intrinsically Programmed. It Is Characterized By Distinctive Morphologic Changes In The Nucleus And Cytoplasm, Chromatin Cleavage At Regularly Spaced Sites, And The Endonucleolytic Cleavage Of Genomic Dna; (Dna Fragmentation); At Internucleosomal Sites. This Mode Of Cell Death Serves As A Balance To Mitosis In Regulating The Size Of Animal Tissues And In Mediating Pathologic Processes Associated With Tumor Growth.
What is/are Base Sequence used for? The Sequence Of Purines And Pyrimidines In Nucleic Acids And Polynucleotides. It Is Also Called Nucleotide Sequence.
What is/are Blood used for? The Body Fluid That Circulates In The Vascular System (Blood Vessels). Whole Blood Includes Plasma And Blood Cells.
What is/are Blood Physiological Phenomena used for? Physiological Processes And Properties Of The Blood.
What is/are Blood Proteins used for? Proteins That Are Present In Blood Serum, Including Serum Albumin; Blood Coagulation Factors; And Many Other Types Of Proteins.
What is/are Blotting, Western used for? Identification Of Proteins Or Peptides That Have Been Electrophoretically Separated By Blot Transferring From The Electrophoresis Gel To Strips Of Nitrocellulose Paper, Followed By Labeling With Antibody Probes.
What is/are Bone Marrow Cells used for? Cells Contained In The Bone Marrow Including Fat Cells (See Adipocytes); Stromal Cells; Megakaryocytes; And The Immediate Precursors Of Most Blood Cells.
What is/are Calcium used for? A Basic Element Found In Nearly All Organized Tissues. It Is A Member Of The Alkaline Earth Family Of Metals With The Atomic Symbol Ca, Atomic Number 20, And Atomic Weight 40. Calcium Is The Most Abundant Mineral In The Body And Combines With Phosphorus To Form Calcium Phosphate In The Bones And Teeth. It Is Essential For The Normal Functioning Of Nerves And Muscles And Plays A Role In Blood Coagulation (As Factor Iv) And In Many Enzymatic Processes.
What is/are Cattle used for? Domesticated Bovine Animals Of The Genus Bos, Usually Kept On A Farm Or Ranch And Used For The Production Of Meat Or Dairy Products Or For Heavy Labor.
What is/are Cell Adhesion used for? Adherence Of Cells To Surfaces Or To Other Cells.
What is/are Cell Communication used for? Any Of Several Ways In Which Living Cells Of An Organism Communicate With One Another, Whether By Direct Contact Between Cells Or By Means Of Chemical Signals Carried By Neurotransmitter Substances, Hormones, And Cyclic Amp.
What is/are Cell Count used for? The Number Of Cells Of A Specific Kind, Usually Measured Per Unit Volume Or Area Of Sample.
What is/are Cell Culture Techniques used for? Methods For Maintaining Or Growing Cells In Vitro.
What is/are Cell Cycle used for? The Complex Series Of Phenomena, Occurring Between The End Of One Cell Division And The End Of The Next, By Which Cellular Material Is Duplicated And Then Divided Between Two Daughter Cells. The Cell Cycle Includes Interphase, Which Includes G0 Phase; G1 Phase; S Phase; And G2 Phase, And Cell Division Phase.
What is/are Cell Differentiation used for? Progressive Restriction Of The Developmental Potential And Increasing Specialization Of Function That Leads To The Formation Of Specialized Cells, Tissues, And Organs.
What is/are Cell Division used for? The Fission Of A Cell. It Includes Cytokinesis, When The Cytoplasm Of A Cell Is Divided, And Cell Nucleus Division.
What is/are Cell Line used for? Established Cell Cultures That Have The Potential To Propagate Indefinitely.
What is/are Cell Line, Tumor used for? A Cell Line Derived From Cultured Tumor Cells.
What is/are Cell Movement used for? The Movement Of Cells From One Location To Another. Distinguish From Cytokinesis Which Is The Process Of Dividing The Cytoplasm Of A Cell.
What is/are Cell Proliferation used for? All Of The Processes Involved In Increasing Cell Number Including Cell Division.
What is/are Cell Separation used for?
What is/are Cell Survival used for? The Span Of Viability Of A Cell Characterized By The Capacity To Perform Certain Functions Such As Metabolism, Growth, Reproduction, Some Form Of Responsiveness, And Adaptability.
What is/are Cells, Cultured used for? Cells Propagated In Vitro In Special Media Conducive To Their Growth. Cultured Cells Are Used To Study Developmental, Morphologic, Metabolic, Physiologic, And Genetic Processes, Among Others.
What is/are Cercopithecus aethiops used for? A Species Of Cercopithecus Containing Three Subspecies
What is/are Chick Embryo used for? The Developmental Entity Of A Fertilized Chicken Egg (Zygote). The Developmental Process Begins About 24 H Before The Egg Is Laid At The Blastodisc, A Small Whitish Spot On The Surface Of The Egg Yolk. After 21 Days Of Incubation, The Embryo Is Fully Developed Before Hatching.
What is/are Chlamydia trachomatis used for? Type Species Of Chlamydia Causing A Variety Of Ocular And Urogenital Diseases.
What is/are Chondrocytes used for? Polymorphic Cells That Form Cartilage.
What is/are Coculture Techniques used for? A Technique Of Culturing Mixed Cell Types In Vitro To Allow Their Synergistic Or Antagonistic Interactions, Such As On Cell Differentiation Or Apoptosis. Coculture Can Be Of Different Types Of Cells, Tissues, Or Organs From Normal Or Disease States.
What is/are Collagen used for? A Polypeptide Substance Comprising About One Third Of The Total Protein In Mammalian Organisms. It Is The Main Constituent Of Skin; Connective Tissue; And The Organic Substance Of Bones (Bone And Bones) And Teeth (Tooth).
What is/are Colony-Forming Units Assay used for? A Cytologic Technique For Measuring The Functional Capacity Of Stem Cells By Assaying Their Activity.
What is/are Corneal Stroma used for? The Lamellated Connective Tissue Constituting The Thickest Layer Of The Cornea Between The Bowman And Descemet Membranes.
What is/are Cricetinae used for? A Subfamily In The Family Muridae, Comprising The Hamsters. Four Of The More Common Genera Are Cricetus, Cricetulus; Mesocricetus; And Phodopus.
What is/are Cryopreservation used for? Preservation Of Cells, Tissues, Organs, Or Embryos By Freezing. In Histological Preparations, Cryopreservation Or Cryofixation Is Used To Maintain The Existing Form, Structure, And Chemical Composition Of All The Constituent Elements Of The Specimens.
What is/are Culture Media used for? Any Liquid Or Solid Preparation Made Specifically For The Growth, Storage, Or Transport Of Microorganisms Or Other Types Of Cells. The Variety Of Media That Exist Allow For The Culturing Of Specific Microorganisms And Cell Types, Such As Differential Media, Selective Media, Test Media, And Defined Media. Solid Media Consist Of Liquid Media That Have Been Solidified With An Agent Such As Agar Or Gelatin.
What is/are Culture Media, Conditioned used for? Culture Media Containing Biologically Active Components Obtained From Previously Cultured Cells Or Tissues That Have Released Into The Media Substances Affecting Certain Cell Functions (E.G., Growth, Lysis).
What is/are Culture Media, Serum-Free used for? Culture Media Free Of Serum Proteins But Including The Minimal Essential Substances Required For Cell Growth. This Type Of Medium Avoids The Presence Of Extraneous Substances That May Affect Cell Proliferation Or Unwanted Activation Of Cells.
What is/are Culture Techniques used for? Methods Of Maintaining Or Growing Biological Materials In Controlled Laboratory Conditions. These Include The Cultures Of Cells; Tissues; Organs; Or Embryo In Vitro. Both Animal And Plant Tissues May Be Cultured By A Variety Of Methods. Cultures May Derive From Normal Or Abnormal Tissues, And Consist Of A Single Cell Type Or Mixed Cell Types.
What is/are Cytological Techniques used for? Methods Used To Study Cells.
What is/are Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral used for? Visible Morphologic Changes In Cells Infected With Viruses. It Includes Shutdown Of Cellular Rna And Protein Synthesis, Cell Fusion, Release Of Lysosomal Enzymes, Changes In Cell Membrane Permeability, Diffuse Changes In Intracellular Structures, Presence Of Viral Inclusion Bodies, And Chromosomal Aberrations. It Excludes Malignant Transformation, Which Is Cell Transformation, Viral. Viral Cytopathogenic Effects Provide A Valuable Method For Identifying And Classifying The Infecting Viruses.
What is/are Cytophotometry used for? A Method For The Study Of Certain Organic Compounds Within Cells, In Situ, By Measuring The Light Intensities Of The Selectively Stained Areas Of Cytoplasm. The Compounds Studied And Their Locations In The Cells Are Made To Fluoresce And Are Observed Under A Microscope.
What is/are Dimethylpolysiloxanes used for? Silicone Polymers Which Consist Of Silicon Atoms Substituted With Methyl Groups And Linked By Oxygen Atoms. They Comprise A Series Of Biocompatible Materials Used As Liquids, Gels Or Solids; As Film For Artificial Membranes, Gels For Implants, And Liquids For Drug Vehicles; And As Antifoaming Agents.
What is/are Disease Models, Animal used for? Naturally Occurring Or Experimentally Induced Animal Diseases With Pathological Processes Sufficiently Similar To Those Of Human Diseases. They Are Used As Study Models For Human Diseases.
What is/are DNA used for? A Deoxyribonucleotide Polymer That Is The Primary Genetic Material Of All Cells. Eukaryotic And Prokaryotic Organisms Normally Contain Dna In A Double-Stranded State, Yet Several Important Biological Processes Transiently Involve Single-Stranded Regions. Dna, Which Consists Of A Polysugar-Phosphate Backbone Possessing Projections Of Purines (Adenine And Guanine) And Pyrimidines (Thymine And Cytosine), Forms A Double Helix That Is Held Together By Hydrogen Bonds Between These Purines And Pyrimidines (Adenine To Thymine And Guanine To Cytosine).
What is/are DNA Primers used for? Short Sequences (Generally About 10 Base Pairs) Of Dna That Are Complementary To Sequences Of Messenger Rna And Allow Reverse Transcriptases To Start Copying The Adjacent Sequences Of Mrna. Primers Are Used Extensively In Genetic And Molecular Biology Techniques.
What is/are DNA, Viral used for? Deoxyribonucleic Acid That Makes Up The Genetic Material Of Viruses.
What is/are Dose-Response Relationship, Drug used for? The Relationship Between The Dose Of An Administered Drug And The Response Of The Organism To The Drug.
What is/are Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel used for? Electrophoresis In Which A Polyacrylamide Gel Is Used As The Diffusion Medium.
What is/are Embryo, Mammalian used for? The Entity Of A Developing Mammal (Mammals), Generally From The Cleavage Of A Zygote To The End Of Embryonic Differentiation Of Basic Structures. For The Human Embryo, This Represents The First Two Months Of Intrauterine Development Preceding The Stages Of The Fetus.
What is/are Enterovirus used for? A Genus Of The Family Picornaviridae Whose Members Preferentially Inhabit The Intestinal Tract Of A Variety Of Hosts. The Genus Contains Many Species. Newly Described Members Of Human Enteroviruses Are Assigned Continuous Numbers With The Species Designated „Human Enterovirus“.
What is/are Enzyme Activators used for? Compounds Or Factors That Act On A Specific Enzyme To Increase Its Activity.
What is/are Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay used for? An Immunoassay Utilizing An Antibody Labeled With An Enzyme Marker Such As Horseradish Peroxidase. While Either The Enzyme Or The Antibody Is Bound To An Immunosorbent Substrate, They Both Retain Their Biologic Activity; The Change In Enzyme Activity As A Result Of The Enzyme-Antibody-Antigen Reaction Is Proportional To The Concentration Of The Antigen And Can Be Measured Spectrophotometrically Or With The Naked Eye. Many Variations Of The Method Have Been Developed.
What is/are Epidermal Growth Factor used for? A 6-Kda Polypeptide Growth Factor Initially Discovered In Mouse Submaxillary Glands. Human Epidermal Growth Factor Was Originally Isolated From Urine Based On Its Ability To Inhibit Gastric Secretion And Called Urogastrone. Epidermal Growth Factor Exerts A Wide Variety Of Biological Effects Including The Promotion Of Proliferation And Differentiation Of Mesenchymal And Epithelial Cells. It Is Synthesized As A Transmembrane Protein Which Can Be Cleaved To Release A Soluble Active Form.
What is/are Epithelial Cells used for? Cells That Line The Inner And Outer Surfaces Of The Body By Forming Cellular Layers (Epithelium) Or Masses. Epithelial Cells Lining The Skin; The Mouth; The Nose; And The Anal Canal Derive From Ectoderm; Those Lining The Respiratory System And The Digestive System Derive From Endoderm; Others (Cardiovascular System And Lymphatic System) Derive From Mesoderm. Epithelial Cells Can Be Classified Mainly By Cell Shape And Function Into Squamous, Glandular And Transitional Epithelial Cells.
What is/are Epithelium used for? One Or More Layers Of Epithelial Cells, Supported By The Basal Lamina, Which Covers The Inner Or Outer Surfaces Of The Body.
What is/are Ethyl Ethers used for?
What is/are Extracellular Matrix used for? A Meshwork-Like Substance Found Within The Extracellular Space And In Association With The Basement Membrane Of The Cell Surface. It Promotes Cellular Proliferation And Provides A Supporting Structure To Which Cells Or Cell Lysates In Culture Dishes Adhere.
What is/are F-Box Proteins used for? A Family Of Proteins That Share The F-Box Motif And Are Involved In Protein-Protein Interactions. They Play An Important Role In Process Of Protein Ubiquition By Associating With A Variety Of Substrates And Then Associating Into Scf Ubiquitin Ligase Complexes. They Are Held In The Ubiquitin-Ligase Complex Via Binding To Skp Domain Proteins.
What is/are Fetal Blood used for? Blood Of The Fetus. Exchange Of Nutrients And Waste Between The Fetal And Maternal Blood Occurs Via The Placenta. The Cord Blood Is Blood Contained In The Umbilical Vessels (Umbilical Cord) At The Time Of Delivery.
What is/are Fetus used for? The Unborn Young Of A Viviparous Mammal, In The Postembryonic Period, After The Major Structures Have Been Outlined. In Humans, The Unborn Young From The End Of The Eighth Week After Conception Until Birth, As Distinguished From The Earlier Embryo, Mammalian.
What is/are Fibroblasts used for? Connective Tissue Cells Which Secrete An Extracellular Matrix Rich In Collagen And Other Macromolecules.
What is/are Fibronectins used for? Glycoproteins Found On The Surfaces Of Cells, Particularly In Fibrillar Structures. The Proteins Are Lost Or Reduced When These Cells Undergo Viral Or Chemical Transformation. They Are Highly Susceptible To Proteolysis And Are Substrates For Activated Blood Coagulation Factor Viii. The Forms Present In Plasma Are Called Cold-Insoluble Globulins.
What is/are Flow Cytometry used for? Technique Using An Instrument System For Making, Processing, And Displaying One Or More Measurements On Individual Cells Obtained From A Cell Suspension. Cells Are Usually Stained With One Or More Fluorescent Dyes Specific To Cell Components Of Interest, E.G., Dna, And Fluorescence Of Each Cell Is Measured As It Rapidly Transverses The Excitation Beam (Laser Or Mercury Arc Lamp). Fluorescence Provides A Quantitative Measure Of Various Biochemical And Biophysical Properties Of The Cell, As Well As A Basis For Cell Sorting. Other Measurable Optical Parameters Include Light Absorption And Light Scattering, The Latter Being Applicable To The Measurement Of Cell Size, Shape, Density, Granularity, And Stain Uptake.
What is/are Fluorescent Antibody Technique used for? Test For Tissue Antigen Using Either A Direct Method, By Conjugation Of Antibody With Fluorescent Dye (Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct) Or An Indirect Method, By Formation Of Antigen-Antibody Complex Which Is Then Labeled With Fluorescein-Conjugated Anti-Immunoglobulin Antibody (Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect). The Tissue Is Then Examined By Fluorescence Microscopy.
What is/are Foreign Bodies used for? Inanimate Objects That Become Enclosed In The Body.
What is/are Gene Expression used for? The Phenotypic Manifestation Of A Gene Or Genes By The Processes Of Genetic Transcription And Genetic Translation.
What is/are Gene Expression Regulation used for? Any Of The Processes By Which Nuclear, Cytoplasmic, Or Intercellular Factors Influence The Differential Control (Induction Or Repression) Of Gene Action At The Level Of Transcription Or Translation.
What is/are Genome, Viral used for? The Complete Genetic Complement Contained In A Dna Or Rna Molecule In A Virus.
What is/are Glycoproteins used for? Conjugated Protein-Carbohydrate Compounds Including Mucins, Mucoid, And Amyloid Glycoproteins.
What is/are Growth Substances used for? Signal Molecules That Are Involved In The Control Of Cell Growth And Differentiation.
What is/are Haplorhini used for? A Suborder Of Primates Consisting Of Six Families
What is/are HeLa Cells used for? The First Continuously Cultured Human Malignant Cell Line, Derived From The Cervical Carcinoma Of Henrietta Lacks. These Cells Are Used For Virus Cultivation And Antitumor Drug Screening Assays.
What is/are Hepatovirus used for? A Genus Of Picornaviridae Causing Infectious Hepatitis Naturally In Humans And Experimentally In Other Primates. It Is Transmitted Through Fecal Contamination Of Food Or Water. Hepatitis A Virus Is The Type Species.
What is/are Herpesviridae used for? A Family Of Enveloped, Linear, Double-Stranded Dna Viruses Infecting A Wide Variety Of Animals. Subfamilies, Based On Biological Characteristics, Include
What is/are Immunohistochemistry used for? Histochemical Localization Of Immunoreactive Substances Using Labeled Antibodies As Reagents.
What is/are Inclusion Bodies, Viral used for? An Area Showing Altered Staining Behavior In The Nucleus Or Cytoplasm Of A Virus-Infected Cell. Some Inclusion Bodies Represent „Virus Factories“ In Which Viral Nucleic Acid Or Protein Is Being Synthesized; Others Are Merely Artifacts Of Fixation And Staining. One Example, Negri Bodies, Are Found In The Cytoplasm Or Processes Of Nerve Cells In Animals That Have Died From Rabies.
What is/are Iron Chelating Agents used for? Organic Chemicals That Form Two Or More Coordination Links With An Iron Ion. Once Coordination Has Occurred, The Complex Formed Is Called A Chelate. The Iron-Binding Porphyrin Group Of Hemoglobin Is An Example Of A Metal Chelate Found In Biological Systems.
What is/are Isotope Labeling used for? Techniques For Labeling A Substance With A Stable Or Radioactive Isotope. It Is Not Used For Articles Involving Labeled Substances Unless The Methods Of Labeling Are Substantively Discussed. Tracers That May Be Labeled Include Chemical Substances, Cells, Or Microorganisms.
What is/are Kidney used for? Body Organ That Filters Blood For The Secretion Of Urine And That Regulates Ion Concentrations.
What is/are Kinetics used for? The Rate Dynamics In Chemical Or Physical Systems.
What is/are Mannose used for? A Hexose Or Fermentable Monosaccharide And Isomer Of Glucose From Manna, The Ash Fraxinus Ornus And Related Plants. (From Grant & Hackh’S Chemical Dictionary, 5Th Ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2D Ed)
What is/are Mesenchymal Stromal Cells used for? Bone-Marrow-Derived, Non-Hematopoietic Cells That Support Hematopoetic Stem Cells. They Have Also Been Isolated From Other Organs And Tissues Such As Umbilical Cord Blood, Umbilical Vein Subendothelium, And Wharton Jelly. These Cells Are Considered To Be A Source Of Multipotent Stem Cells Because They Include Subpopulations Of Mesenchymal Stem Cells.
What is/are Mice, Inbred BALB C used for?
What is/are Mice, Inbred C57BL used for?
What is/are Microscopy, Electron used for? Microscopy Using An Electron Beam, Instead Of Light, To Visualize The Sample, Thereby Allowing Much Greater Magnification. The Interactions Of Electrons With Specimens Are Used To Provide Information About The Fine Structure Of That Specimen. In Transmission Electron Microscopy The Reactions Of The Electrons That Are Transmitted Through The Specimen Are Imaged. In Scanning Electron Microscopy An Electron Beam Falls At A Non-Normal Angle On The Specimen And The Image Is Derived From The Reactions Occurring Above The Plane Of The Specimen.
What is/are Microscopy, Electron, Scanning used for? Microscopy In Which The Object Is Examined Directly By An Electron Beam Scanning The Specimen Point-By-Point. The Image Is Constructed By Detecting The Products Of Specimen Interactions That Are Projected Above The Plane Of The Sample, Such As Backscattered Electrons. Although Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Also Scans The Specimen Point By Point With The Electron Beam, The Image Is Constructed By Detecting The Electrons, Or Their Interaction Products That Are Transmitted Through The Sample Plane, So That Is A Form Of Transmission Electron Microscopy.
What is/are Microscopy, Fluorescence used for? Microscopy Of Specimens Stained With Fluorescent Dye (Usually Fluorescein Isothiocyanate) Or Of Naturally Fluorescent Materials, Which Emit Light When Exposed To Ultraviolet Or Blue Light. Immunofluorescence Microscopy Utilizes Antibodies That Are Labeled With Fluorescent Dye.
What is/are Mitogens used for? Substances That Stimulate Mitosis And Lymphocyte Transformation. They Include Not Only Substances Associated With Lectins, But Also Substances From Streptococci (Associated With Streptolysin S) And From Strains Of Alpha-Toxin-Producing Staphylococci. (Stedman, 25Th Ed)
What is/are MMPI used for? A Personality Inventory Consisting Of Statements To Be Asserted Or Denied By The Individual. The Patterns Of Response Are Characteristic Of Certain Personality Attributes.
What is/are Molecular Sequence Data used for? Descriptions Of Specific Amino Acid, Carbohydrate, Or Nucleotide Sequences Which Have Appeared In The Published Literature And/Or Are Deposited In And Maintained By Databanks Such As Genbank, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (Embl), National Biomedical Research Foundation (Nbrf), Or Other Sequence Repositories.
What is/are Muscle, Smooth, Vascular used for? The Nonstriated Involuntary Muscle Tissue Of Blood Vessels.
What is/are Mutation used for? Any Detectable And Heritable Change In The Genetic Material That Causes A Change In The Genotype And Which Is Transmitted To Daughter Cells And To Succeeding Generations.
What is/are Mycoplasma used for? A Genus Of Gram-Negative, Mostly Facultatively Anaerobic Bacteria In The Family Mycoplasmataceae. The Cells Are Bounded By A Plasma Membrane And Lack A True Cell Wall. Its Organisms Are Pathogens Found On The Mucous Membranes Of Humans, Animals, And Birds.
What is/are Myocytes, Smooth Muscle used for? Non-Striated, Elongated, Spindle-Shaped Cells Found Lining The Digestive Tract, Uterus, And Blood Vessels. They Are Derived From Specialized Myoblasts (Myoblasts, Smooth Muscle).
What is/are Neurons used for? The Basic Cellular Units Of Nervous Tissue. Each Neuron Consists Of A Body, An Axon, And Dendrites. Their Purpose Is To Receive, Conduct, And Transmit Impulses In The Nervous System.
What is/are Neutralization Tests used for? The Measurement Of Infection-Blocking Titer Of Antisera By Testing A Series Of Dilutions For A Given Virus-Antiserum Interaction End-Point, Which Is Generally The Dilution At Which Tissue Cultures Inoculated With The Serum-Virus Mixtures Demonstrate Cytopathology (Cpe) Or The Dilution At Which 50% Of Test Animals Injected With Serum-Virus Mixtures Show Infectivity (Id50) Or Die (Ld50).
What is/are Organ Culture Techniques used for? A Technique For Maintenance Or Growth Of Animal Organs In Vitro. It Refers To Three-Dimensional Cultures Of Undisaggregated Tissue Retaining Some Or All Of The Histological Features Of The Tissue In Vivo. (Freshney, Culture Of Animal Cells, 3D Ed, P1)
What is/are Phenotype used for? The Outward Appearance Of The Individual. It Is The Product Of Interactions Between Genes, And Between The Genotype And The Environment.
What is/are Phosphorylation used for? The Introduction Of A Phosphoryl Group Into A Compound Through The Formation Of An Ester Bond Between The Compound And A Phosphorus Moiety.
What is/are Platelet-Derived Growth Factor used for? Mitogenic Peptide Growth Hormone Carried In The Alpha-Granules Of Platelets. It Is Released When Platelets Adhere To Traumatized Tissues. Connective Tissue Cells Near The Traumatized Region Respond By Initiating The Process Of Replication.
What is/are Polymerase Chain Reaction used for? In Vitro Method For Producing Large Amounts Of Specific Dna Or Rna Fragments Of Defined Length And Sequence From Small Amounts Of Short Oligonucleotide Flanking Sequences (Primers). The Essential Steps Include Thermal Denaturation Of The Double-Stranded Target Molecules, Annealing Of The Primers To Their Complementary Sequences, And Extension Of The Annealed Primers By Enzymatic Synthesis With Dna Polymerase. The Reaction Is Efficient, Specific, And Extremely Sensitive. Uses For The Reaction Include Disease Diagnosis, Detection Of Difficult-To-Isolate Pathogens, Mutation Analysis, Genetic Testing, Dna Sequencing, And Analyzing Evolutionary Relationships.
What is/are Primary Cell Culture used for? The Initial Culturing Of Cells Derived Directly From Fresh Tissues.
What is/are Protein Binding used for? The Process In Which Substances, Either Endogenous Or Exogenous, Bind To Proteins, Peptides, Enzymes, Protein Precursors, Or Allied Compounds. Specific Protein-Binding Measures Are Often Used As Assays In Diagnostic Assessments.
What is/are Proteoglycans used for? Glycoproteins Which Have A Very High Polysaccharide Content.
What is/are Rabbits used for? The Species Oryctolagus Cuniculus, In The Family Leporidae, Order Lagomorpha. Rabbits Are Born In Burrows, Furless, And With Eyes And Ears Closed. In Contrast With Hares, Rabbits Have 22 Chromosome Pairs.
What is/are Rats, Sprague-Dawley used for? A Strain Of Albino Rat Used Widely For Experimental Purposes Because Of Its Calmness And Ease Of Handling. It Was Developed By The Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
What is/are Recombinant Proteins used for? Proteins Prepared By Recombinant Dna Technology.
What is/are Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction used for? A Variation Of The Pcr Technique In Which Cdna Is Made From Rna Via Reverse Transcription. The Resultant Cdna Is Then Amplified Using Standard Pcr Protocols.
What is/are RNA Interference used for? A Gene Silencing Phenomenon Whereby Specific Dsrnas (R
What is/are RNA, Messenger used for? Rna Sequences That Serve As Templates For Protein Synthesis. Bacterial Mrnas Are Generally Primary Transcripts In That They Do Not Require Post-Transcriptional Processing. Eukaryotic Mrna Is Synthesized In The Nucleus And Must Be Exported To The Cytoplasm For Translation. Most Eukaryotic Mrnas Have A Sequence Of Polyadenylic Acid At The 3′ End, Referred To As The Poly(A) Tail. The Function Of This Tail Is Not Known For Certain, But It May Play A Role In The Export Of Mature Mrna From The Nucleus As Well As In Helping Stabilize Some Mrna Molecules By Retarding Their Degradation In The Cytoplasm.
What is/are RNA, Viral used for? Ribonucleic Acid That Makes Up The Genetic Material Of Viruses.
What is/are Serial Passage used for? Inoculation Of A Series Of Animals Or In Vitro Tissue With An Infectious Bacterium Or Virus, As In Virulence Studies And The Development Of Vaccines.
What is/are Serum used for? The Clear Portion Of Blood That Is Left After Blood Coagulation To Remove Blood Cells And Clotting Proteins.
What is/are Serum Albumin, Bovine used for? Serum Albumin From Cows, Commonly Used In In Vitro Biological Studies. (From Stedman, 25Th Ed)
What is/are Signal Transduction used for? The Intracellular Transfer Of Information (Biological Activation/Inhibition) Through A Signal Pathway. In Each Signal Transduction System, An Activation/Inhibition Signal From A Biologically Active Molecule (Hormone, Neurotransmitter) Is Mediated Via The Coupling Of A Receptor/Enzyme To A Second Messenger System Or To An Ion Channel. Signal Transduction Plays An Important Role In Activating Cellular Functions, Cell Differentiation, And Cell Proliferation. Examples Of Signal Transduction Systems Are The Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid-Postsynaptic Receptor-Calcium Ion Channel System, The Receptor-Mediated T-Cell Activation Pathway, And The Receptor-Mediated Activation Of Phospholipases. Those Coupled To Membrane Depolarization Or Intracellular Release Of Calcium Include The Receptor-Mediated Activation Of Cytotoxic Functions In Granulocytes And The Synaptic Potentiation Of Protein Kinase Activation. Some Signal Transduction Pathways May Be Part Of Larger Signal Transduction Pathways; For Example, Protein Kinase Activation Is Part Of The Platelet Activation Signal Pathway.
What is/are SKP Cullin F-Box Protein Ligases used for? A Subset Of Ubiquitin Protein Ligases That Are Formed By The Association Of A Skp Domain Protein, A Cullin Domain Protein And A F-Box Domain Protein.
What is/are Stem Cells used for? Relatively Undifferentiated Cells That Retain The Ability To Divide And Proliferate Throughout Postnatal Life To Provide Progenitor Cells That Can Differentiate Into Specialized Cells.
What is/are Sulfonamides used for? A Group Of Compounds That Contain The Structure So2Nh2.
What is/are Swine used for? Any Of Various Animals That Constitute The Family Suidae And Comprise Stout-Bodied, Short-Legged Omnivorous Mammals With Thick Skin, Usually Covered With Coarse Bristles, A Rather Long Mobile Snout, And Small Tail. Included Are The Genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (Wart Hogs), And Sus, The Latter Containing The Domestic Pig (See Sus Scrofa).
What is/are Temperature used for? The Property Of Objects That Determines The Direction Of Heat Flow When They Are Placed In Direct Thermal Contact. The Temperature Is The Energy Of Microscopic Motions (Vibrational And Translational) Of The Particles Of Atoms.
What is/are Thiazoles used for?
What is/are Thymidine used for?
What is/are Time Factors used for? Elements Of Limited Time Intervals, Contributing To Particular Results Or Situations.
What is/are Tissue Culture Techniques used for? A Technique For Maintaining Or Growing Tissue In Vitro, Usually By Diffusion, Perifusion, Or Perfusion. The Tissue Is Cultured Directly After Removal From The Host Without Being Dispersed For Cell Culture.
What is/are Tissue Engineering used for? Generating Tissue In Vitro For Clinical Applications, Such As Replacing Wounded Tissues Or Impaired Organs. The Use Of Tissue Scaffolding Enables The Generation Of Complex Multi-Layered Tissues And Tissue Structures.
What is/are Transcription, Genetic used for? The Biosynthesis Of Rna Carried Out On A Template Of Dna. The Biosynthesis Of Dna From An Rna Template Is Called Reverse Transcription.
What is/are Transfection used for? The Uptake Of Naked Or Purified Dna By Cells, Usually Meaning The Process As It Occurs In Eukaryotic Cells. It Is Analogous To Bacterial Transformation (Transformation, Bacterial) And Both Are Routinely Employed In Gene Transfer Techniques.
What is/are Tumor Cells, Cultured used for? Cells Grown In Vitro From Neoplastic Tissue. If They Can Be Established As A Tumor Cell Line, They Can Be Propagated In Cell Culture Indefinitely.
What is/are Vero Cells used for? A Cell Line Derived From The Kidney Of The African Green (Vervet) Monkey, (Cercopithecus Aethiops) Used Primarily In Virus Replication Studies And Plaque Assays.
What is/are Viral Plaque Assay used for? Method For Measuring Viral Infectivity And Multiplication In Cultured Cells. Clear Lysed Areas Or Plaques Develop As The Viral Particles Are Released From The Infected Cells During Incubation. With Some Viruses, The Cells Are Killed By A Cytopathic Effect; With Others, The Infected Cells Are Not Killed But Can Be Detected By Their Hemadsorptive Ability. Sometimes The Plaque Cells Contain Viral Antigens Which Can Be Measured By Immunofluorescence.
What is/are Viral Proteins used for? Proteins Found In Any Species Of Virus.
What is/are Virology used for? The Study Of The Structure, Growth, Function, Genetics, And Reproduction Of Viruses, And Virus Diseases.
What is/are Virulence used for? The Degree Of Pathogenicity Within A Group Or Species Of Microorganisms Or Viruses As Indicated By Case Fatality Rates And/Or The Ability Of The Organism To Invade The Tissues Of The Host. The Pathogenic Capacity Of An Organism Is Determined By Its Virulence Factors.
What is/are Virus Cultivation used for? Process Of Growing Viruses In Live Animals, Plants, Or Cultured Cells.
What is/are Virus Replication used for? The Process Of Intracellular Viral Multiplication, Consisting Of The Synthesis Of Proteins; Nucleic Acids; And Sometimes Lipids, And Their Assembly Into A New Infectious Particle.
What is/are Viruses used for? Minute Infectious Agents Whose Genomes Are Composed Of Dna Or Rna, But Not Both. They Are Characterized By A Lack Of Independent Metabolism And The Inability To Replicate Outside Living Host Cells.
What is/are Wheat Germ Agglutinins used for? Lectins Purified From The Germinating Seeds Of Common Wheat (Triticum Vulgare); These Bind To Certain Carbohydrate Moieties On Cell Surface Glycoproteins And Are Used To Identify Certain Cell Populations And Inhibit Or Promote Some Immunological Or Physiological Activities. There Are At Least Two Isoforms Of This Lectin.